Increase in body weight during the holidays is associated with decreased physical activity

fredrikHow much weight do you put on during the winter holidays? Many may think the weight increases by 2-3 kilograms, but if we are to believe a study from the New England Journal of Medicine, it is probably far less. The authors included 195 people with great diversity of ethnicity and age, who were weighed four times between October and March. This allowed the researchers to see the change in weight before, during and after the holidays.

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Obesity in youth leads to cardiac death in adulthood

vektOverweight and obesity has increased significantly recent decades among children and teenagers. Studies have shown that in some Western countries, up to one third of children and teenagers are obese. The New England Journal of Medicine recently published a study where the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and heart disease in 2.3 million youths from Israel were examined. The special features of this study are the large sample of youths who were investigated, and the correlation between BMI in teenagers and heart disease in midlife.

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High intensity interval training reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases in elderly and obese

Kondisjonstrening (Illustrasjonsfoto: Geir Mogen)Les dette blogginnlegget på norsk her!

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with cardiovascular diseases being the number one cause. Because of the recent changes in world demographics with an increasing number of elderly and obese, NCDs are expected to increase in the years to come. Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and aerobic exercise training is shown to improve both aerobic capacity and endothelial function, two important and strong prognostic factors for cardiovascular mortality. However, little is known about the effects of high intensity exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly and obese subjects.

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Current physical activity guidelines are insufficient to mitigate long-term weight gain

overvektLes om denne studien på norsk her!

Researchers in our group have found that current physical activity guidelines for health are insufficient to mitigate long-term weight gain. The study was published in British Journal of Sports Medicine, and are based on data from The HUNT study i Norway.

The current guidelines for physical activity for health benefits say that all adults should do moderate-intensity activity a minimum of 150 minutes, or vigorous-intensity activity for 60 minutes or more, each week. But do this level of physical activity prevent long-term weight gain?

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CERG at ESC 2014

bilde 3Vegard Malmo presented the poster “Aerobic interval training reduces the burden of atrial fibrillation”. The study shows that aerobic interval training for 12 weeks clearly reduces the burden of AF in symptomatic patients. It is followed by a significant improvement in VO2max, left atrial and ventricular function, cholesterol levels, and quality of life. Further studies are needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms and the effect of exercise training for a longer period of time. The study was presented at the ESC Congress in Barcelona who was arranged August 30th to September 3d.

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Do treadmills have to come with a health warning?

At the recent American College of Sports Medicine Conference in Orlando Florida, one of the speakers in a physical inactivity and health session was challenging why treadmills needs come with a health warning such as: “ See your physician before beginning any exercise program or changing your physical activity or changing your physical activity patterns, you should always consult with your doctor or physician, particularly if you have been inactive, are very overweight, or have or suspect any sort of medical condition that might be worsened with exercise”.

Atefe

As of today we discuss whether “sitting is the new smoking” in terms of the epidemic of negative health consequences seen from an inactive lifestyle. The Norwegian health authorities has targeted inactivity as the major future health challenge, and as many as 83% of adult Norwegians are far from the daily goal of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity.

Read also: Funny tredmills

An inactive lifestyle is associated with premature disease development and decreased quality of life. In Norway it has been estimated an increase in daily physical activity by 10-15 minutes per day may save 500 000 Nok per year of living, as people live longer in a healthy condition. In sum this is estimated to add up to a saving of 3 million Nok per individual that changes from an inactive to a moderately active lifestyle.

 Read also: High-intensity exercise is shown to be protective against coronary heart disease (CHD)

As inactivity is the major future health challenge and physical activity is safe in the majority of healthy individuals and patient populations it might be time to remove health warnings on treadmills and rather advice people to exercise as inactivity is a greater killer than smoking.

Read also: Exercise or medicines – what to prefere?

Trine Karlsen, researcher at CERG

Folk legger på seg over tid – anbefalingene for fysisk aktivitet er ikke nok til å hindre vektøkning

I en ny studie publisert i British Journal of Sports Medicine har forskere ved CERG sett på hvordan vekta vår endrer seg over tid. Forskerne undersøkte vektøkning hos ca 19 000 deltakere i Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag fra 1984 (HUNT1), 1995 (HUNT2) og til 2007 (HUNT 3) og fant at:

Dagens anbefalinger for fysisk aktivitet (det vil si >150 minutter moderat eller >60 min intens aktivitet per uke) ikke var nok til å forhindre vektøkning over tid. Selv om det er vist i mange studier at det å være aktiv i henhold til anbefalingene gir gode helsegevinster og reduserer dødelighet, kan det se ut som man må være mer aktiv for å hindre å legge på seg over tid.

Les også: Hvor fort blir stillesitting farlig?

Studien er også omtalt i Reuters sin sak Adults who follow exercise guidelines still gain weight og i førstesidesaken til Dagbladet i dag, 12. mai:

bilde(1)I analyser justert for alder, røyking, diabetes og alkohol, fant forskerne at de som har høyere aktivitetsnivå enn dagens anbefalinger la på seg i snitt ca 2 kg mindre per tiår enn de som var inaktive. Det å være  aktiv i henhold til anbefalingene var assosiert med kun 0,5-0,7 kg mindre vektøkning enn hos inaktive.

Forskerne så på ulike BMI-kategorier og fant at det først og fremst var hos de som var overvektige eller hadde fedme som hadde lavest vektøkning ved å ha aktivitetsnivå høyere enn dagens anbefalinger.

Trine Moholdt. Foto: Lasse Berre

Trine Moholdt. Foto: Lasse Berre

Når vi så på de nesten 3000 deltakerne som hadde opprettholdt samme aktivitetsnivå gjennom hele perioden, fant vi at menn som var inaktive la på seg 9.1 kg mens menn som var mer aktive enn anbefalingene la på seg 5.5 kg. For kvinnene var det ennå større forskjell; 9.5 kg for inaktive og bare 3.8 kg for de som oversteg anbefalingene.

Les også: Folkehelse 2.0

– Vi mener at det er viktig for utarbeidelse av retningslinjer for fysisk aktivitet at det er nødvendig med mer enn 150 minutter i uka for å forhindre vektøkning over tid. Vi har dessverre ikke data på hvor mye stillesittende tid disse deltakerne hadde i de første to helseundersøkelsene, men i HUNT3 ser vi at det er sterk assosiasjon mellom vekt og tid tilbrakt i ro. Det er derfor bra at reduksjon av stillesittende tid er tatt inn i de nye anbefalingene fra Helsedirektoratet, sier forsker Trine Moholdt.

Les også: En fysisk aktiv befolkning – 7 inveseringer som virker

Trine Moholdt, forsker CERG og Andrea Hegdahl Tiltnes, kommunikasjonsansvarlig CERG.