We hear about them all the time – this gene causes a disease, or that gene is important for normal heart function. Most people could tell you that your genes are made of something called DNA, that you inherit them from your parents and pass them on to your children, and that they determine much of who you are and what you look like. But how do we get from genes to an entire organism, and what control do we have over our genes?
To answer these questions, we need a basic understanding of what is known as the “central dogma” of biology, which describes the one way flow of genetic information. While the reality is more complex than this, the flow can be simplified as such: